Slovenian Beehives and Lessons in Harmonious Living
May 20 is World Bee Day, a celebration proclaimed into being by the U.N. in December of 2017, thanks to the dedicated efforts of bee-loving Slovenians, who lobbied for three years for this recognition of the humble pollinators.
Beekeeping occupies a special place in Slovenia's economy as one of its oldest traditional crafts, and Slovenian Beehives have become celebrated as an art form, too. In fact, before Slovenia became an independent country in 1918, it was considered a part of Austria and called "Carniola" after the indigenous Carniolan bee. Slovenia's beekeeping culture was the focus of my travels there, and I discovered that apiculture is a blend of art, science and philosophy.
Exploring Slovenian Beehives
On a sunny spring morning, I made my way on a winding country road in northern Slovenia. Cresting a hill, I spotted a colorful Hobbit-sized hut perched on a field. A young man emerged, giving me a friendly wave. I’d found my destination and date with the Honey King of Selo village, Blaz Ambrozic.
I had come to this hamlet near the Austrian border to visit Blaž’s apiary, a freestanding house of Slovenian beehives. The apiary is located on a farm that has been in Blaz’s family since the 18th century and is named Kralov, which means “by the king.”
More than a thousand years ago, when prince-bishops of Brixen ruled the region, the village founder was the local king. He determined where each resident could build their homes. Blaz told me the name Kralov is ancient and has long-represented quality goods; his father produced homemade Kralov brandy, and now Blaz has branded his own product: “Kralov Med” or “Honey King.”
He gave me an hour-long demonstration on this Slovenian form of agriculture. First, he explained each of the painted wooden beehive panels that make up the façade of the beehives tell a story. They depict scenes that range from Biblical lore to tongue-in-cheek social satire. Painted Slovenian beehives are a unique from of folk art which is specific to Slovenia and can be traced back to the middle of the 18th century.
Growing up with the bees
“Our children’s first experience with the bees was when they were each three months old,” she explained. “Because I help Blaz in the apiary, they were always there with us, watching and playing. At first we were a little scared because we didn’t know how they would respond if they got stung. When it happened, they cried a little and quickly got over it.”
Blaz is philosophical about the downside of working with bees. “If you work with bees, you are stung–but a sting is also a cure for arthritis,” he said. “If the bees didn’t sting, then everyone would be a beekeeper.”
“Most people do not know how important the bees are for our food, “Blaz said. “If man is doing something that affects nature adversely, like the use of pesticides, the dead bees are the first sign that we are doing something wrong. If we don’t have bees, we will have a lot of problems, beginning with hunger.”
In fact, according to the Natural Resources Defense Council, cross-pollination helps at least 30 percent of the world’s crops and 90 percent of our wild plants to thrive. Without bees to spread seeds, many plants—including food crops—would die off.
Not surprisingly, Blaz is concerned about the global decline in the bee population. Since the late 1990s, beekeepers around the world have observed the mysterious and sudden disappearance of bees, and report unusually high rates of decline in honeybee colonies.
“The bees have been in existence since the times of the dinosaurs and have survived the Ice Age,” he continued. “In North and South America the bee population is declining more than in Slovenia, but we also have problems.
Blaz belongs to a local Bled beekeeping club that is part of the Slovenian Beekeepers Association (SBA), which was formed in 1873. He explained that SBA gives free lectures, publishes a magazine and advocates on behalf of members with the government. Of Slovenia’s 10,000 beekeepers, about 7,500 belong to SBA.
Keeping the Slovenian Beekeeping tradition alive
Peter Kozmus, of Pilštanj in eastern Slovenia near the Croatian border, is the leader of Slovenian Beekeeping Association’s breeding program for the Carniolan honeybee, overseeing the country’s efforts to conserve the species. Now 37, he began beekeeping when he was 14, participating in bee clubs in primary school. He now has around 50 bee colonies—as well as his PhD in the molecular characterization of the Carniolan bee population as based on mitochondrial DNA.
Kozmus was also responsible for the campaign to have the United Nations declare May 20 as World Bee Day.
“Beekeeping is the part of Slovenian tradition,” he said. “We are a nation of beekeepers. On average, there are five beekeepers for every 1,000 inhabitants—per capita, probably the country with the most beekeepers in the world.”
No one personifies Slovenia’s beekeeping tradition more than Anton Jansa, whose birth date of May 20 was chosen for World Bee Day. Born in 1734, Jansa is considered a pioneer of modern apiculture and a great expert in the field. He was educated as a painter, but was employed as a teacher of apiculture at the Habsburg court in Vienna.
Among Jansa’s many contributions to apiculture is changing the size and shape of hives to a form where they can be stacked together like blocks. His approach can still be seen at his apiary in Breznica, about 10 minutes from Blaz’s; Jansa’s site has been preserved by Slovenian beekeepers and continues to be a place of pilgrimage for those interested in apiculture.
The Slovenian government joined the Slovenian Beekeepers Association in the World Bee Day campaign. In support of the initiative, Dejan Židan, deputy prime minister and minister of agriculture, forestry and food, declared that Slovenia “recognizes the importance of bees and beekeeping for ensuring food security, as well as preserving the entire ecosystem and natural biodiversity.”
The Cultural and Symbolic Importance of Bees in Slovenia
“Bees have important social symbolism in Slovenia,” said Tita Porenta, curator of the Museum of Apiculture in Radovljica, a short drive from both Blaz’s and Anton Jansa’s apiaries. “Numerous good qualities are associated with the domestic bee. The Carniolan Grey has inspired particularly deep spiritual attitudes in the Slovenian people. This is reflected in beliefs, superstitions, symbolism, proverbs, literature and fine arts.”
In addition to exhibits on the history and culture of beekeeping, the museum features an observational beehive.
“Bee nourishment in nature is gathered by forager bees,” Tita explained. “To be successful in this task, they have developed an ability to inform one another about food sources in nature. By turning the body in a circular pattern or in a number eight pattern, buzzing and wagging the abdomen and from time to time giving away gathered food, the dancing bee informs her companions of the direction, distance, source and abundance of forage. This interaction is called the bee dance.”
Just down the street from the museum, the bee is even memorialized on the façade of a building adorned with a gorgeous Art Noveau tile mosaic depicting bees buzzing around a tree.
“The building is now owned by the municipality of Radovljica; previously it was a savings bank,” Danijela said. “They say if you’re frugal and work hard, you are working like a bee.”
I left Slovenia with new respect and affection for the energy, entrepreneurship and cooperative spirit of the honeybee, thanks to Blaz, Danijela, Tita, Peter and even Anton Jansa.